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Antisemitic Incidents in New York Soared 110% in 2023, Shattering Previous Records and Sparking Deep Concern

  • April 16, 2024

New York, NY, April 16, 2024…According to new data released by ADL (the Anti-Defamation League) today, reported antisemitic incidents in 2023 rose by 110% in New York, reaching 1,218 total incidents – the highest number ever recorded by ADL in the state and the second highest number recorded in any state across the country last year. This is on the heels of a record-breaking year in 2022, which saw a 39% increase from 2021. Almost 14% of the nation’s antisemitic incidents in 2023 took place in New York State.  

ADL recorded 8,873 incidents of assault, harassment, and vandalism across the country. The total represents a 140-percent increase from 2022 – already a record-setting year – and the highest level recorded since ADL started tracking this data in 1979. 

The data reflects a disturbing increase from last year’s record high of 580 antisemitic incidents. In the fourth quarter alone of 2023, ADL recorded 815 antisemitic incidents in New York – more than the total incidents for all of 2022. Significantly, antisemitic incidents related to Israel and Zionism soared from 26 in 2022 to 393 in 2023. 

Antisemitic incidents increased significantly in two of the three main categories compiled by ADL – harassment and vandalism. Incidents related to assault decreased by 25%.  

“ADL’s 2023 Audit of Antisemitic Incidents confirms what Jewish communities across New York state have seen firsthand – antisemitism is a statewide and national emergency,” said Scott Richman, ADL New York/New Jersey Regional Director. “New York documented a shocking 1,218 antisemitic incidents last year – more than double the previous record reached in 2022. We call on all community and government leaders to make fighting antisemitism and supporting the Jewish community a key priority.” 

Major New York Findings 

The Audit classified incidents into three categories:  

  • Harassment up by 226% (783 incidents) 
  • Vandalism up by 42% (381 incidents) 
  • Assault down by 25% (54 Incidents) 

Antisemitic incidents in New York took place in a wide variety of locations: 

  • Public Areas (423) – up by 56%  
  • Jewish Institutions (345) – up by 311%   
  • Non-Jewish K-12 Schools (173) – up by 226%  
  • Colleges and Universities (110) –up by 214% 
  • Homes (71) – up by 9%  
  • Businesses (56) – up by 30%  

A disproportionate number of reported antisemitic incidents – 815 – took place during Q4 (October, November, December) of 2023. Following the brutal Hamas attacks in Israel, there were 802 incidents reported between 10/7 and 12/31. By comparison, there were 129 reported incidents in Q1, 128 reported incidents in Q2 and 146 reported incidents in Q3. This puts Q4 508% above the average of 134 incidents per quarter before 10/7. The number of recorded antisemitic assaults followed this trend as well, with 27 reported in Q4 compared to 14 reported in Q1, 14 reported in Q2, and 17 reported in Q3.  

A total of 266 incidents involved the display of a Nazi swastika, representing a 14% increase from 2022 and 22% of the total incidents that took place in 2023. 

Geographic Data  

Sixty-three percent (767) of incidents took place in the five boroughs of New York City.  This included: 

  • 217 incidents of vandalism 
  • 499 incidents of harassment 
  • 51 were incidents of assault.
    • 94% of the 54 total reported antisemitic assaults in New York State took place in New York City.  

All of the counties in the downstate region experienced an uptick in reported antisemitic incidents. New York County led the five boroughs with an increase in reported incidents by 120%.  

  • Manhattan: 429 (up by 120%) 
  • Brooklyn:  197 (up by 34%) 
  • Queens: 94 (up by 262%) 
  • Bronx: 32 (up by 113%) 
  • Staten Island: 15 (up by 25%) 
  • Long Island: 178 (up by 134%) 
    • Nassau: 94 (up by 124%) 
    • Suffolk: 84 (up by 147%) 
  • Westchester: 59 (up by 157%) 
  • Rockland: 37 (up by 61%) 
  • Remaining New York Counties: 177 (up by 181%) 

During 2023, ADL tracked or responded to antisemitic incidents in 34 of the 62 counties in New York State, which is a slight increase from 30 counties in 2022. Underreporting must be considered when looking at the Audit. 


While it was encouraging that reported antisemitic assaults decreased by 25% from 72 reported incidents in 2022 to 54, it is still the second-highest number of antisemitic assaults reported in New York. More antisemitic assaults took place in New York than any other state: Out of the 161 antisemitic assaults nationwide, one-third took place in New York. 

People were punched in their faces, sprayed with chemicals, hit by eggs, rocks, chairs and beaten with an umbrella. When a security officer tried to stop a woman from removing posters of the individuals kidnapped by Hamas, she sprayed the officer with pepper spray. 

Of the 51 documented antisemitic assaults in New York City in 2023, Orthodox Jews were targeted in 61% (31) of incidents. 

Incidents Targeting Orthodox Jews 

In New York, 78 recorded antisemitic incidents involved Orthodox Jews in 2023, (down from 83 in 2022), the majority of which occurred in Brooklyn. 

An Orthodox Jew in Queens was attacked on the steps of his synagogue on Shabbat morning by an individual in a passing vehicle who threw a rock at him striking him in the leg. 

Another incident took place in Borough Park, when two suspects went on an hourlong harassing spree, terrorizing Yeshiva students chasing them by foot and on a moped, at times forcing them to run into the road. Minutes later, the duo was seen chasing another group of boys, followed by a third and fourth incident all within the span of one hour.  

It’s important to note that while the victims were not physically hurt, the sheer panic and emotional pain caused by these senseless crimes are traumatizing. 

On a Shabbat afternoon in November, three Orthodox Jews were viciously beaten in separate incidents by a group chanting anti-Israel rhetoric. First, a 40-year-old man walking home from Shul was confronted by the young assailants who punched him multiple times before riding off on a scooter. An hour later the same suspects punched and kicked a 15-year-old boy, yelling “Free Palestine”, and minutes later, the same group surrounded a 27-year-old man kicking him multiple times before running off. In addition to the physical pain endured by the victims, these roving group assaults bring a sense of panic and insecurity to the entire community. 

The most violent assault occurred in Crown Heights, Brooklyn, when a 55-year-old Orthodox Jew walking to synagogue Friday night was struck by a car driven by an individual who ran a red light before speeding away. The victim suffered a broken leg and other injuries and was transported to a local hospital. After a 6-month investigation, NYPD Hate Crimes arrested the driver who is now facing an array of charges, including hate crimes charges. 

Israel and Zionism-Related Incidents 

Of the 1,218 antisemitic incidents recorded in New York State in 2023, 393 involved explicit references to Israel or Zionism (around 30%). The vast majority of these incidents, whether they took place on college campuses, K-12 schools, in public spaces or at demonstrations, occurred in the three months following the Hamas attacks on Israel on 10/7. This equates to four Israel or Zionism-related antisemitic incidents occurring each day from October through December, reflecting how global events directly impact everyday life in New York State. 

References to Israel and Zionism were found across all three categories tracked by ADL’s Audit of Antisemitic Incidents: harassment, vandalism and assault. Nine of these incidents involved violence against Jews or safety officers and one chilling episode ended in an arrest when an individual fired shotgun rounds outside of an Albany synagogue and Hebrew School. If convicted, the shooter faces up to 20 years on federal charges. 

Jewish Institutions 

There was a 311% increase in incidents targeting Jewish institutions in 2023 with 345 incidents. These types of institutions include synagogues, Jewish community centers and Jewish day schools. The most notable rise in types of incidents included 314 incidents of harassment, which marked an outrageous 451% increase in this category, and a 27% increase in vandalism incidents with 28 incidents. 

Bomb Threats and Swatting 

In 2023, ADL tracked a dramatic spike in bomb threats nationwide with 1,009 incidents in 2023. In New York, 211 bomb threats were called into or emailed to Jewish institutions, resulting in disrupted religious services and drains on public resources. Of the 211, 92% of these occurred at synagogues, highlighting the vulnerability of these centers of Jewish communal life. Thirty-five of these bomb threats happened around the Jewish High Holidays in September while the bulk of them (163 incidents) took place at the end of the year in December. The counties with the highest number of bomb threats were New York (82), Kings (41), and Nassau and Suffolk counties (28).  

Swatting was also increasingly used as a tactic to intimidate and harass marginalized communities, including 104 swatting incidents targeting Jewish institutions nationwide. In New York state, ADL reported 19 incidents of swatting. Similar to bomb threats, swattings are hoax 911 calls about an emergency, obligating law enforcement agencies to investigate and disrupting activities taking place at the identified address.  

Almost 95% of these swatting incidents took place within Jewish institutions or schools, with synagogues bearing 14 of these incidents. Of the 211 bomb threats within Jewish institutions, 12 of these were also incidents of swatting. Forty-four percent of the synagogues affected received messages containing extremist language or rhetoric.    

Educational Institutions  

K-12 Schools  

A total of 173 antisemitic incidents in New York in 2023 were recorded in K-12 schools (excluding Jewish schools), a 226% increase from the 53 incidents recorded in 2022.  

These reported antisemitic incidents included a 265% increase of antisemitic written or verbal harassment incidents (62) and one incident of assault.  

The majority of reported incidents in K-12 schools involved acts of vandalism (110). The school year began with 129 incidents in Q1 with the number of incidents staying relatively similar at 127 in Q2.  After the summer break, school communities faced 10 antisemitic incidents for Q3, which includes the summer months, and 85 in Q4 (after the Hamas attacks on Israel and the ensuing war). 125 incidents included swastikas at every level of K-12 schools. 

 Antisemitic incidents at K-12 schools included: 

  • A high school student drew a swastika on their hand and held down a Jewish student, leaving behind the swastika on their cheek. 
  • The alumni association’s website of a prestigious Bronx high school was hijacked after an announcing an alumni reunion in Israel with comments like, “the alumni should be hit with rocks” as well as threats of physical violence to the administration and students who support Israel.  
  • Jewish students were told to “go back to the ovens,” and “I’m going to put you in a gas chamber…I’m going to gas you out. I’m going to send you to a concentration camp.”  
  • A Jewish high school teacher was repeatedly taunted and asked why he likes to kill babies and an elementary school teacher wore pins that read, “Zionism is terrorism” and “Zionist donors and trustees, hands off our universities.”  
  • A Jewish high school teacher in Queens was the target of an organized demonstration which led to a widely reported riot for her support of Israel.   


In 2023, ADL documented a massive increase in incidents on college campuses in New York with 110 incidents, compared to 35 incidents recorded in 2022. Some notable incidents that occurred in 2023 included; In October 2023, A Cornell student made violent threats against the Cornell Jewish community on an online forum, including rhetoric such as, “the genocidal fascist Zionist regime will be destroyed” and “rape and kill all the Jew women before they birth more Jewish Hitlers.” During an anti-Israel protest at Cooper Union in Manhattan, Jewish students were forced to barricade themselves in a library as protestors violently banged on the door while chanting “free Palestine,” and on October 9th, during an anti-Israel protest, a Cornell professor described the October 7th attacks as “exhilarating.” 

ADL has seen a growing trend of attempts to exclude or ban Zionists from campus. At Columbia, a student group promoted an event with an email stating, “Zionists not invited.” ADL also documented incidents of antisemitic stickers at the Fashion Institute of Technology (FIT), which said, “Punch a Zionist,” and at Columbia, which said, “Zionist donors hands off our campus.” 

Nationwide, ADL recorded 922 incidents on college campuses in 2023, a 321% increase from the 219 incidents recorded in 2022. Over 10% of all antisemitic incidents in 2023 occurred on college campuses.  

The post-October 7th spike in antisemitic incidents was particularly acute on college and university campuses. ADL recorded 732 campus-based antisemitic incidents (of the 922 annual total) between October 7th and the end of 2023 alone. 


In 2023, private residences were the site of 71 reported antisemitic incidents in New York, representing a slight drop from 78 incidents in 2022. These incidents included the vandalism of homes with swastikas and the phrase “Kill all Jews,” the tearing of mezuzot from doorposts, spray painting “Jew” on a mailbox, individuals receiving antisemitic phone calls and extremist flyers, and the harassment of Hebrew-speaking residents with antisemitic comments. 

Business Establishments  

Last year, 56 antisemitic incidents were documented as having taken place at New York business establishments, an increase of 30% relative to the 43 incidents recorded in 2022. An additional 16 incidents targeted Jewish-owned businesses, which included an ice cream shop, a bakery, Israeli restaurants, and a bagel shop/deli. 

Half (28) of the antisemitic incidents reported at business establishments involved written or verbal harassment, 15 incidents included swastikas, and extremists were involved with two incidents. One of these was the swatting of a major news organization headquartered in NYC. The caller said, “I really hate Jewish organizations like the media and I want to send a message.”  

Extremist Activity 

Extremist and white supremacist groups continued to maintain an active presence in New York in 2023, using propaganda to communicate their hateful messages more broadly and to recruit new members. In 2023, ADL documented 20 white supremacist propaganda distribution incidents in New York State. Their flyers were “dropped” on a NYC subway, at a school, a highway rest stop and residential neighborhoods, both upstate and downstate. 

In 2023, 12 of the 20 antisemitic white supremacist propaganda distributions had connections to one network, the Goyim Defense League (GDL), a loose network of extremists with the goal of spreading antisemitic myths and conspiracy theories. Their flyers follow a pattern and offer headlines such as, “Every aspect of (the media, the government, abortion, etc.) is controlled by the Jews.” 


As high as the numbers were in 2023, underreporting continues to be a challenge in many communities, as victims of bias crimes and antisemitic incidents – particularly those in marginalized communities – face significant barriers to reporting in the first instance. ADL continues to work with elected officials, law enforcement leaders and community members across New York to tackle these problems head-on. In 2023, ADL received reports from only 34 of 62 counties across the state. ADL encourages all members of the public to report incidents of antisemitism directly to ADL here: 


The ADL Audit includes both criminal and non-criminal acts of harassment and intimidation, including distribution of hate propaganda, threats and slurs, as well as vandalism and assault. Compiled using information provided by victims, law enforcement and community leaders, and evaluated by ADL’s professional staff, the Audit provides a regular snapshot of one specific aspect of the Jewish-American experience while identifying possible trends in the types of activity reported.  

ADL’s 2023 Audit numbers contain 1,350 incidents included due to a post-October 7 methodology update (see Methodology in the Audit). Excluding incidents included under the methodology update, ADL tabulated 7,525 incidents, a 103-percent increase in antisemitic incidents from the incident total in 2022. 

The complete dataset for antisemitic incidents for 2016-2023 is available on ADL’s H.E.A.T. Map, an interactive online tool that allows users to geographically chart antisemitic incidents and extremist activity.  

The Audit offers a snapshot of one of the ways American Jews encounter antisemitism, but a full understanding of antisemitism in the U.S. requires other forms of analysis as well, including public opinion polling, assessments of online antisemitism and examinations of extremist activity, all of which ADL offers in other reports, such as the ADL Survey of Antisemitic Attitudes in America 2024, Campus Antisemitism: A Study of Campus Climate Before and After the Hamas Terrorist Attacks, ADL Global 100, Online Hate and Harassment: The American Experience, Murder and Extremism and White Supremacist Propaganda.    

ADL is the leading anti-hate organization in the world. Founded in 1913, its timeless mission is “to stop the defamation of the Jewish people and to secure justice and fair treatment to all.” Today, ADL continues to fight all forms of antisemitism and bias, using innovation and partnerships to drive impact. A global leader in combating antisemitism, countering extremism and battling bigotry wherever and whenever it happens, ADL works to protect democracy and ensure a just and inclusive society for all. More at 

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